Polycystic ovary syndrome, or PCOS, is a condition in which a woman’s ovaries do not release one egg correctly each month (abnormal ovulation). Instead, the egg remains on the surface of the ovary, and a fluid-filled cyst forms around it.
The cause is not fully understood, but PCOS can be caused by excess weight because it causes hormonal imbalances and insulin resistance. It can also be a genetic factor.
Symptoms are very irregular and irregular periods. Symptoms of excess male hormones can include acne, facial and body hair, and even male pattern baldness.
Untreated PCOS can cause infertility, pregnancy complications, abnormal uterine bleeding, depression, and endometrial cancer.
Diagnosis is based on symptoms, pelvic examination, blood tests, and ultrasound.
PCOS is usually treated with birth control pills, which suppress ovarian growth, regulate the menstrual cycle, and reduce the production of male hormones. Maintaining a normal body weight usually helps the condition.
Lupus is an autoimmune disease called systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE. This causes the body’s immune system to attack its own cells, just as it attacks an invading agent or microbe.
The disease can take different forms depending on which system and organ it affects.
Symptoms may come and go, be mild or temporarily aggravated. These are a butterfly-shaped rash that spreads from the bridge of the nose over both cheeks; tired; fever; joint pain; Chest pain; mental confusion; sensitivity to sunlight; and Raynaud’s phenomenon, where fingers and toes turn white when exposed to cold.
While symptoms can be treated to improve quality of life, there is no cure for lupus.
The symptoms of lupus are very different, so the diagnosis is made by a combination of tests. Blood tests, urine tests, kidney and liver tests, and antibody tests will all be done.
Treatment includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, some combination of immunosuppressants, diet, sleep, and stress management to help strengthen the immune system.